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Articles » Central nervous system » Cephalocele » Anterior cephaloceles

2006-08-28-10 Cephalocele, occipital © Werner

Cephalocele, anterior

Heron Werner, MD*, Maracheila Drumond, MD**, Jose Francisco Salomao, MD**, Fernando Guerra**

* Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem - CDPI  ** Instituto Fernander Figueira - IFF/Fiocruz  Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Encephalocele is a herniation of brain contents through a defect in the skull. The cause is unknown, but it is thought to be a failure of closure of the rostral neuropore. The frontal encephalocele is placed between the bregma and anterior part of the ethmoid bone. The majority extents into the root of the nose. The appearance on ultrasound examination and MRI could be as a cystic mass, a solid mass with a gyral pattern or a combination of cystic and solid components. We can also recognize the skull defect. Associated anomalies include  hydrocephaly and microcephaly. The post-natal treatment is surgery.

Ultrasound images (sagittal and axial sections) showing a cystic mass placed in the anterior part of the ethmoid bone (arrow).

3D ultrasound view of the fetal face (29 weeks)

Sagittal T2 view showing the cystic mass with brain parenchyma inside (arrow)

Axial T2 showing the mass (arrow)

Axial T1 showing the mass (arrow)

The neonate before and after surgery

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