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Articles » Syndromes » Walker-Warburg syndrome

2010-3-24-16 Walker-Warburg syndrome © Chauhan

Walker-Warburg syndrome

Binodini M.Chauhan, MD.

Surat, India.


Walker-Warburg syndrome is a rare form of autosomal recessive condition characterized by hydrocephalus, lissencephaly, ocular abnormalities with or without encephalocele. it is often associated with distinct muscular dystrophies. Affected individuals usually die within the first few months of life.


HARD +/-E Syndrome (Hydrocephalus, Agyria, and Retinal Dysplasia, with or without encephalocele)  
Cerebroocular Dysgenesis  
Hydrocephalus, Agyria, and Retinal Dysplasia   
Cerebroocular Dysplasia-Muscular Dystrophy syndrome
Cerebroocular Dysgenesis, COD



Case report

 This a case of a 26-year-old G1P0 with non-contributive family or personal history. She was referred to our department at 23 weeks of gestation for the ventriculomegaly. The ultrasound scan showed the following findings:


  • Hydrocephalus, bilateral massive dilatation of the lateral ventricles
  • Hypoplasia of the cerebellum and vermis
  • Absent corpus callosum
  • Unilateral eye cataract with retinal detachment
Walker-Warburg syndrome was diagnosed based on the findings of hydrocephalus and ocular abnormalities.
Unfortunately we lost a follow-up of the patient because she was from a distant rural area.

Images 1- 4: Images show a hydrocephalus, the lateral ventricles are massively dilated.

Images 5,6: Image 5 shows presence of the middle cerebral artery which rules out Hydranencephaly as a possible differential diagnosis. Image 6 show cataract and retinal detachment indicated by the green arrow.

Images 7-9: Images of the left eye cataract. Note the echogenicity of the lens.

Video: Hydrocephalus and eye cataract is demonstrated on this video.

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